GRIN - Tourism Destinations.Definitions, Changes and Trends (2023)

Contents

Abstract

Introduction

Definition of Tourism Destinations

Attractiveness and Competitiveness

Tourism Destinations Trends

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Tourism Generators

Cultural, Social, and Physical Features

Comparison of Developing and Developed Tourist Destinations

The Impact of Climate Change and Sustainability of Tourism Destination

Impact on Sustainable Tourist Destinations

Conclusion

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References

Abstract

The World Tourism Organization (WTO), sees tourism as an activity by people who travel outside of their customary neighborhood either for leisure, business, or for medical purposes for a period not exceeding one year. Some tourism scholars see tourism as the temporary movement of individuals away from their normal surroundings, and the activities undertaken during their stay in the new destination, as well as the facilities made to cater for the tourists needs. Pundits estimate that about seventy percent of tourists visit the ten major tourism destinations while thirty percent share the other destinations. It is, therefore, evident that the bulk of the revenue generated in the global travel goes to the established destinations; therefore, the undeveloped destinations need to undertake some strategic planning in order to attract tourists in their destinations. Tourists are drawn to a certain tourism destination because of its attractiveness that reflects the feelings of the tourists regarding the destination perceived ability to meet their needs. Thus, the more a certain destination meets the tourist’s needs, the more it is seen to be attractive, and consequently its popularity grows. It is imperative that the sustainable tourism development concept be adopted in all tourism destinations in order to appropriately cater for the needs of the travellers and the host destinations while enhancing and protecting opportunities for the future.

Introduction

The World Tourism Organization (WTO) sees tourism as an activity by people who travel outside of their customary neighborhood for leisure, business, or for medical purposes for a period not exceeding one year. Some other scholars see tourism as the temporary movement of individuals away from their normal surroundings, and the activities undertaken during their stay in the new destination, as well as the facilities made to cater for the tourists needs. Whereas WTO includes business travelers in the definition, the other definition excludes workplace as part of the definition, which excludes business travelers. However, trying to get specific data on business travel is problematic. It should be noted that only two-third of world travelers are estimated to travel for leisure only. There are several types of tourism that WTO has identified, such as, coastal and beaches as well as other water related recreations, wildlife, mountain climbing, city tourism, and nature tourism. It is the aim of this paper to discuss the tourism industry in light of most visited destinations and the social, cultural and geographical features that attracts people to visit those destinations.

Definition of Tourism Destinations

Some scholars have introduced the tourist destinations as a concept complete with a definition, which is, destinations are places that have constructed an amalgam of tourist products and services whose consumption is under the brand name of the destination. The destinations are well defined geographically and understood by the tourists as unique entities and exhibit several core provisions (Zygmunt 2013). These provisions are accessibility, attractions, package activities, and auxiliary services. According to WTO, a destination is a unique place where a visitor spends at least one night and exhibit tourism products such as attractions, support services, and tourism resources complete with defined management, physical and administrative boundaries, and a well known image.

It is estimated that seventy percent of tourists visit the ten major tourist destinations while thirty percent share the other destinations. It is, therefore, indicative of the intensity of competition for the less known destinations (Biganoa et al. 2004). WTO differentiates the tourist destinations into several world blocks; the Americas, Europe, the Pacific, East Asia, Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. However, it is possible to differentiate the American region into North America and South America because the two blocks have very distinct but different ecological, socio-cultural, and economic orientation (Vengesayi 2003). For instance, South America is recognized for its biodiversity whereas North America is not.

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Table 1: Top ten tourist destinations (UNWTO 2012)

Attractiveness and Competitiveness

Tourism development occupies an irreplaceable position in the formulation of policy in all countries because of its benefits for the local people in respect to the social, economic and environmental concerns. Tourist destinations compete for tourists at tourism market leading to a sharp competitive struggle (Zygmunt 2013). The main objective of regional and governments and the tourism industry stakeholders is to succeed by enhancing the competitiveness of their destination. The tourism industry is, in most countries, the largest player in the economic sectors, therefore, it is an important factor in the development of any region, and more so, in Europe. By its nature, it contributes to the stability of both regional and local economies because of its multiplier effect which helps create business opportunities in the activities that go into making the tourist comfortable as well as influencing the creation of employment in the region (Vengesayi 2003).

Tourists are drawn to a certain tourism destination because of its attractiveness that reflects the feelings of the tourists regarding the destination perceived ability to meet their needs. Thus, the more a certain destination meets the tourist’s needs, the more it is seen to be attractive, and consequently its popularity grows. The ability to meet the tourist needs include the attributes of the destination or the components that make the given destination (Biganoa et al. 2004). Therefore, the people evaluate the attractiveness of a destination and make their choices accordingly. Thus, the attractiveness of a destination is the main factor in getting the tourist to visit and spend time at a given destination. Consequently, the value of a destination is the pulling it has on visitors. If a destination does not have the attractiveness value it cannot attract tourist, and, therefore, there is no need for putting up tourist facilities and services.

To be profitable in the tourism industry both in the short and long term, the development and management should be guided by competitiveness as a new paradigm. It is accepted that competitiveness is now a critical factor in determining the success of industries, organizations, and even countries. A destination is competitive if it has a growing market share when measured by the numbers of visitors and the financial returns (Vengesayi 2003). Thus, competitiveness is associated with high visitor’s numbers and increasing revenue. However, it is important to look at the tourism sector through the multifaceted nature of the industry since there are diverse players in industry who are involved in making the destination attractive and competitive.

Tourism Destinations Trends

According to UNWTO, the total earning from international tourism in 2013 was one trillion and a half. The tourism industry globally earned by expenditure from international tourists one thousand, one hundred and fifty-nine billion on food, accommodation, drinks, entertainment and other related services in 2013 (UNWTO 2014) The growth of the industry exceeded the previous trend in real term, considering inflation and exchange rate fluctuations. The growth in revenue matched the international tourists’ arrival, which also grew by five percent. International tourism accounts for an estimated twenty-nine percent of the world exports of services and a six percent of all exports both of goods and services (UNWTO 2014).

The UNWTO 2014 report indicated that Asia and the Pacific are the fastest growing tourist destinations while Europe claims the largest share. In 2013, Europe accounted for forty-two percent of international tourism globally, while Asia and the Pacific accounted for thirty-one percent (UNWTO 2014). The Americas had twenty percent receipts. In the top ranking of the most visited destinations, the United States of America came first followed by Spain.

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Figure 1: International Tourists Arrivals % change in 2013 (UNTWO)

The BRIC countries, Brazil, Russia, and China produced the fastest growing outbound markets in the last few years. In 2013, the BRIC countries spent forty billion compared to the total increase of eighty-one billion in tourism expenditure (UNWTO 2014). China has led in the last two years in growth and expenditure. Among the ten most visited tourist destinations, Asia destination the state of Thailand, Hong Kong, and Macao saw some significant growth averaging eighteen percent, while Britain and the United States of America, at eleven percent recorded double-digit growth. Spain, china, France, Italy and Germany posted a growth of between one and five percent (UNWTO 2014).

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Figure 2: Absolute figures 2013 (UNWTO)

Europe continues to register the highest growth in terms of revenue generated from the tourism receipts. However, the Asia and Pacific destinations registered significant growth, both in numbers of arrivals as well as receipts (UNWTO 2014). The Africa destination has not registered much development and continues to lag behind despite its massive natural resources in forests, beaches, game parks and reserves. The continents cultural diversity remains an unexploited resource.

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FAQs

What are the trends that affect the tourism industry? ›

Increasing automation. Mobile bookings. Personalization of trips. A focus on sustainable tourism.

What is the definition of destination in tourism? ›

Destination (main destination of a trip): The main destination of a tourism trip is defined as the place visited that is central to the decision to take the trip.

What are the travel and tourism trends? ›

Travel & Tourism's contribution to GDP increased by USD 1 trillion (+21.7% rise) in 2021 to reach USD 5.8 trillion, while the sector's share of the whole economy increased from 5.3% in 2020 to 6.1% in 2021.

What is the meaning of trends in tourism? ›

A trend can be defined as a generalised change in situation or behaviour or a general direction in which things are transpiring. Within tourism, a number of different developments have led to changes in consumer behaviour and business processes, meaning they are responsible for new tourism trends emerging.

What are the factors affecting tourism destination? ›

From these points, we can infer that when the tourist satisfied to factors such as: safety and security, local cuisine, perceived price, infrastructure, destination image and recreation activities, it is likely that they are more satisfied with the destination.

What are the 5 major trends in tourism and hospitality industry? ›

Current and emerging hotel trends to be aware of
  • Smart hotel technology. Incorporating the Internet of Things (IoT) into a property is something that excites guests. ...
  • Sustainable hotels. ...
  • Robot staff. ...
  • Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality. ...
  • Unique brand experiences.

What is the short definition of destination? ›

: the purpose for which something is predetermined or destined. : an act of appointing, setting aside for a purpose, or predetermining. 3. : a place to which one is journeying or to which something is sent.

Why is tourism destination important? ›

Destinations provide tourism supply inform of attractions, facilities, infrastructure and organization which satisfy tourists' demands.

What is a current trend in travel? ›

According to Evolve's 2022 travel forecasts, the average trip will likely be longer in length (5-7 nights in 2022, compared to an average of 3.8 nights in both 2020 and 2021). Longer trips will be increasing in demand as a result of the many work-from-home opportunities too.

What is the meaning of trends in tourism and hospitality? ›

The term 'trend' describes a shift in behaviour or a more generalised change of situation. With this in mind, hospitality trends may include changes in the way customers behave, new ways of providing hospitality services, or general moves towards adopting new hospitality technology.

What are the trending types of tourism in the world? ›

This is an article that represents 4 new types of tourism.
  • Sustainable tourism. ...
  • Food tourism. ...
  • Experiential tourism. ...
  • Wellness tourism.

What mean trends? ›

A trend is what's hip or popular at a certain point in time. While a trend usually refers to a certain style in fashion or entertainment, there could be a trend toward warmer temperatures (if people are following trends associated with global warming).

What are the 3 types of trend analysis? ›

There are three types of trend analysis methods – geographic, temporal and intuitive.

What are the 4 main types of tourism? ›

  • Travel and Tourism. ...
  • Domestic Tourism – Taking Holidays and Trips in your own country. ...
  • Inbound Tourism – Visitors from overseas coming into the country. ...
  • Outbound Tourism –Travelling to a different country for a visit or a. ...
  • Different Types of Travel. ...
  • Leisure Travel - includes travel for holidays, cultural events, recreation.

What are the characteristics of tourism destination? ›

The common characteristics of tourist destinations are attraction, comfort, and accessibility, a specific area with certain tourism resources, facilities, and transportation conditions, which can attract a certain number of tourists to carry out tourism activities.

What are the 3 main impacts of tourism? ›

Tourism can generate positive or negative impacts under three main categories: economic, social, and environmental. These impacts are analyzed using data gathered by businesses, governments, and industry organizations.

What are the trends in hospitality industry in 2022? ›

The traditional hospitality industry will evolve into niche markets (serving specific types of customers), or extremely luxury sector (so they can afford to pay their staff a reasonable salary). Those who can't identify their niche will become the money machines for technology companies.

What is destination and examples? ›

B1. the place where someone is going or where something is being sent or taken: We arrived at our destination tired and hungry. His letter never reached its destination. UK The Caribbean is a popular holiday destination.

What is point of destination meaning? ›

Point of Destination means the precise location where property is delivered into the custody of the consignee or its agent.

What are the five components of a destination? ›

These key elements are known as the 5 A's: Access, Accommodation, Attractions, Activities, and Amenities.

How can we improve tourism destination? ›

5 Ways to Promote Your City or Town to Increase Tourism
  1. Highlight the history and culture. Every destination has its own unique story. ...
  2. Share your tasty tips. ...
  3. Offer visitors a breath of fresh air. ...
  4. Suggest local stores and businesses. ...
  5. Include your personal testimony.
5 Feb 2021

How can we develop tourism destination? ›

5 Tips on How to Market a Tourist Destination
  1. Identify Your Best Prospective Visitors to Optimize Ad Buying. ...
  2. Tailor Your Marketing Efforts by Traveler Type. ...
  3. Increase Exposure by Partnering with Influencers. ...
  4. Create Destination Videos That Appeal to the Right Tourists. ...
  5. Share What's New in Your Area.

What makes a destination successful? ›

Well-established tourism organizations, supportive local governments, engaged local leaders, and a shared vision of sustainability and innovation are what most effectively foster destination success.

How has tourism changed over the years? ›

The growth of tourism

advances in technology meaning that travel is now easier, quicker and more affordable. the growth of the internet means it is easier than ever before to book holidays. improvements in workers' rights means that paid holidays for employees, makes it easier to take time off.

What are the 3 main types of tourism? ›

There are three basic forms of tourism: domestic tourism, inbound tourism, and outbound tourism.

What are the tourism trends 2022? ›

As the world continues to rebound from the COVID-19 pandemic and motivations shift for travelers, we see four key trends impacting travel and hospitality loyalty: Inspiring the next (group) travel destinations. Repositioning business offerings. Increasing program utility.

What are the current trends in sustainable tourism? ›

Increase in demand for extended stay travel products in response to more people working from home, technology developments etc – e.g. global nomads. Increase in domestic sustainable tourism products in light of many people connecting with their own home destinations during the lockdown.

What are the top 3 mega trends in travel? ›

What are the top three mega trends in travel and MICE?
  • Virtual meetings and events to affect TMC sales. ...
  • AI and ML-based solutions used for personalised services. ...
  • Shared-service providers offering new solutions to attract customers.
10 Nov 2020

How does trends in tourism and hospitality affect the country's economy? ›

Positive impacts from this economic boom include robust foreign exchange, increases in income, and GDP growth. Tourism can also offer diverse employment opportunities, can be developed with local products, and is often compatible with other economic activities within a destination.

What is a smart tourism destination? ›

A smart tourism destination is one that responds to the requirements of the present global and mobile elites by facilitating access to tourism and hospitality products, services, spaces and experiences through ICT-based tools and where a healthy social and cultural environment can be found through a focus on the city's ...

What are the world's top 10 tourism destinations? ›

  • France: 89 Million Visitors.
  • Spain: 84 Million Visitors.
  • United States: 79 Million Visitors.
  • China: 66 Million Visitors.
  • Italy: 65 Million Visitors.
  • Turkey: 51 Million Visitors.
  • Mexico: 45 Million Visitors.
  • Thailand: 39.7 Million Visitors.
3 Oct 2022

What is the most popular form of tourism? ›

Cultural Tourism:

This is not only one of the most popular types of tourism but this is actually the crowd puller.

What is trend and example? ›

A trend is a change or development towards something new or different. This is a growing trend. ...a trend towards part-time employment. [ + towards] ...the downward trend in gasoline prices.

What are trends and its types? ›

A trend is the overall direction of a market or an asset's price. In technical analysis, trends are identified by trendlines or price action that highlight when the price is making higher swing highs and higher swing lows for an uptrend, or lower swing lows and lower swing highs for a downtrend.

What are the 4 elements of trends? ›

ELEMENTS AND
  • Trends are popularly accepted. by many industries and people. CULTURAL BASIS. A trend is rooted on the people's. cultural traditions, beliefs, and values. A trend persists and continues. because people have seen it as part of. society's culture. TRANSITORY INCREASE. ...
  • Ideas and Ideologies.
  • Social and Moral. Values.

What are the four 4 categories of trends? ›

As stated above, trends are generally created by four major factors: government, international transactions, speculation/expectation, and supply and demand.

What are the basic types of trends? ›

The three basic types of trends are up, down, and sideways. An uptrend is marked by an overall increase in price. Nothing moves straight up for long, so there will always be oscillations, but the overall direction needs to be higher.

What are the six 6 elements of tourism? ›

As a tourism destination, the Brajan Tourism Village already meets six basic elements, such as attraction, image, accessibility, facilities, human resources and price.

What are the 6 A of tourism? ›

A tourist destination is composed of a multitude of characteristics that can contribute to the success of a dynamic co-creation process that will increase the destination's competitiveness in the tourism sector such as Attractions, Accessibility, Amenities, Available Packages, Activities, and Ancillary Services.

What are the 8 tourism sectors? ›

The following are the eight sectors of tourism:
  • Accommodation.
  • Adventure Tourism and Recreation.
  • Attractions.
  • Events and Conferences.
  • Food and Beverage.
  • Tourism Services.
  • Transportation.
  • Travel Trade.

What trends and issues the tourism and hospitality industry actually faces? ›

Labor and skills shortage has been identified as one of the challenges that are facing the tourism and hospitality industry. This has mostly been complicated by the emergence of new technologies and trends that need to be satisfied and attended to.

What are the current trends and technologies in tourism? ›

Interactive ads with engaging information are augmented reality experiences that are revolutionising the travel industry like never before. These AR and VR technologies and travel tech trends have boundless potential in introducing more interactive elements in the search results of travellers' mobile phones.

What are the latest trends and technology in the tourism and hospitality industry? ›

Recognition Technology

Recognition technology is one of the most important emerging tech trends, but its potential uses in the hospitality industry are especially interesting. In particular, biometrics is used to usher in a new age of seamless authentications, which could benefit hotel processes and customer purchases.

How has technology changed the tourism industry? ›

Booking and Changing Reservations

Customers now have control of their reservation in the palm of their hand and can make updates quickly without interacting with a customer service agent.

Why is sustainable tourism a trend? ›

Increased awareness of the issues surrounding climate change, deforestation, displacement of indigenous people and the preservation of natural resources has helped to contribute to the growth of sustainable tourism, and it is essential for those in the industry to gain an understanding of the concept.

Why do you think trends is important in tourism industry? ›

Knowing and understanding current trends allows those in the industry to tailor their operations to meet demand. It is crucial for DMOs and tourism businesses to stay up-to-date.

What is current trends in sustainable tourism and hospitality? ›

Check out the current trends in sustainable tourism that hoteliers should adopt in order to make their hotels environmentally friendly and get badged by these organizations: Say no to chemical cleaning products. Start buying recycled toilet paper, LED lights and local made furniture.

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